Spread the love

Alport Syndrome USMLE Notes & Mnemonics contains all the high-yield points you need to know.

  • Alport Syndrome: A genetic disorder characterized by progressive renal disease, sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities.


  • Type: Typically X-linked dominant (most common), can be autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant.
  • Gene: Mutations in the COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes affecting type IV collagen.


  • Type IV Collagen: Integral part of the basement membranes in the kidneys, inner ear, and eyes.
  • Kidney: Abnormal basement membrane → glomerulonephritis → progressive renal failure.

Clinical Features

  • Renal: Hematuria (initially microscopic), proteinuria, progressing to chronic kidney disease. (Ref)
  • Hearing loss: Sensorineural, typically high-frequency, manifests in late childhood/adolescence.
  • Ocular: Anterior lenticonus, retinopathy, recurrent corneal erosions.
Alport syndrome mnemonic
Alport syndrome mnemonic

Mnemonic for Clinical Features: “CAN’T

  • C = Collagen Mutation
  • A = Auditory Anomalies (Sensorineural hearing loss)
  • N = Nephropathy (progressive)
  • T = Eye Troubles (Anterior lenticonus, etc.)


  • Family history: Often a family history of renal disease or hearing loss.
  • Urine analysis: Persistent microscopic hematuria, proteinuria.
  • Renal biopsy: Glomerular basement membrane splitting and lamellation seen on electron microscopy.
  • Audiometry: Sensorineural hearing loss.
  • Genetic testing: Identifies mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5.


  • Renal: ACE inhibitors or ARBs for proteinuria, management of chronic kidney disease.
  • Hearing loss: Auditory devices and monitoring.
  • Ocular: Regular ophthalmologic evaluations, corrective lenses for lenticonus.
  • Genetic counseling: Due to hereditary nature.


  • Renal failure: Typically develops by age 20-30 in males with X-linked disease.
  • Hearing loss and visual impairment: Progressive, can be mitigated with early intervention.


  • Renal: End-stage renal disease (ESRD), necessitating dialysis or transplantation.
  • Hearing: Significant sensorineural hearing loss.
  • Ocular: Progressive visual difficulties.

Mnemonic for Management: “RHO

  • R = Renal protection (ACE inhibitors/ARBs)
  • H = Hearing aids for Auditory impairment
  • O = Ocular care

Note: This notes format is concise and targeted for USMLE step exams. It’s important to understand the underlying pathophysiology and genetic implications for comprehensive management of the disease. Stay updated with current guidelines and clinical practices.

Check other important USMLE Notes

Spread the love
Pin It
error: Content is protected !!