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This highyield illustrated notes is about Bacterial causes of Diarrhea

1. Bacillus cereus associated diarrhea

  • Diarrhea – watery and non-bloody
  • Abdominal cramping within 8-18 hours
  • Ingestion of performed toxin in starchy foods such as rice
  • Management: supportive care (antibiotics are ineffective against toxins)
Bacillus cereus diarrhea features
Bacillus cereus diarrhea features

2. Staphylococcus aureus associated diarrhea

  • Vomiting abdominal pain
  • Short incubation period (2–6 hours)
  • Diarrhea not typical but may occur. Non-bloody in nature
  • Caused by preformed toxin with rapid onset of symptoms

3. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, possible fever
  • Bloody stools unusual
  • Associated with antibiotic exposure
  • Treatment: Oral vancomycin, metronidazole, or fidaxomicin
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea

4. Clostridium perfringens associated diarrhea

  • Brief illness with watery diarrhea, cramps and fever
  • Associated with undercooked or unrefrigerated food

5. Salmonella associated diarrhea

  • Watery diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and vomiting
  • Associated with raw undercooked foods especially poultry and eggs
  • Antibiotic treatment needed only for severe disease or immunocompromised patients
Salmonella associated diarrhea
Salmonella associated diarrhea

6. Vibrio vulnificus associated diarrhea

  • Vomiting diarrhea and abdominal pain
  • Associated with raw or undercooked shellfish
  • May cause invasive and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients or those with liver disease

7. Escherichia coli associated diarrhea

  • Watery diarrhea, may be bloody if associated with enterohemorrhagic ( shiga-like toxin producing) strain
  • O157:H7 is most common serotype in US
  • Enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC) causes Traveler’s diarrhea (Watery)
  • Enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC) causes diarrhea in Children (Paediatric)
  • Associated with undercooked beef or foods contaminated with bovine faces

8. Shigella associated diarrhea

  • Bloody diarrhea with fever and often bacteraemia
  • Associated with contaminated food or water especially during travel outside the United States

9. Campylobacter species associated diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea
  • Highest incidence in children and young adults
  • Associated with raw or uncooked meats

10. Vibrio cholerae associated diarrhea

  • Profuse rice-water diarrhea via enterotoxin
  • Transmitted via ingestion of contaminated water or uncooked food (eg, raw shell fish).
  • Treat promptly with oral rehydration solution

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